leaves, He was stronger and healthier than Marcus, the argument went, and thus more suited to military activity. [149], Although Marcus showed no personal affection for Hadrian (significantly, he does not thank him in the first book of his Meditations), he presumably believed it his duty to enact the man's succession plans. “The Emperor-Marcus Antonius: his conversation with himself. [301] The early Christian apologist, Justin Martyr, includes within his First Apology (written between 140 and 150 A.D.) a letter from Marcus Aurelius to the Roman senate (prior to his reign) describing a battlefield incident in which Marcus believed Christian prayer had saved his army from thirst when "water poured from heaven," after which, "immediately we recognized the presence of God." [33][note 2] Though he can hardly have known his father, Marcus wrote in his Meditations that he had learnt 'modesty and manliness' from his memories of his father and the man's posthumous reputation. [122], On 30 November 147, Faustina gave birth to a girl named Domitia Faustina. [132] In 159 and 160, Faustina gave birth to daughters: Fadilla and Cornificia, named respectively after Faustina's and Marcus's dead sisters. The city was sacked nonetheless, leaving a black mark on Lucius's reputation. Maximus … There are stray references in the ancient literature to the popularity of his precepts, and Julian the Apostate was well aware of his reputation as a philosopher, though he does not specifically mention Meditations. [228][note 16] Libo died early in the war; perhaps Lucius had murdered him. [287] Some scholars consider his death to be the end of the Pax Romana. Marcus took the Parthicus Maximus now, after another tactful delay. In 136 the emperor Hadrian (reigned 117–138) inexplicably announced as his eventual successor a certain Lucius Ceionius Commodus (henceforth L. Aelius Caesar), and in that same year young Marcus was engaged to Ceionia Fabia, the daughter of Commodus. But the emaciation is still extreme and there is still quite a bit of coughing'. A spiral of carved reliefs wraps around the column, showing scenes from his military campaigns. '[178] Fronto called on Marcus alone; neither thought to invite Lucius. When we find … Marcus Aurelius. Modern scholars have not offered as positive an assessment. [270] He took great care in the theory and practice of legislation. At the beginning of The Meditations, Marcus Aurelius spends a whole chapter carefully reminding himself of the most important things about the most important people in his life, his family and teachers. He was the last of the rulers known as the Five Good Emperors, and the last emperor of the Pax Romana, an age … He was made consul soon after. All citations to the Historia Augusta are to individual biographies, and are marked with a 'HA'. His name at birth was supposedly Marcus Annius Verus, but some sources assign this name to him upon his father's death and unofficial adoption by his grandfather, upon his coming of age, or at the time of his marriage. A first invasion of the Chatti in the province of Germania Superior was repulsed in 162. [296] The last named went so far as to call him "more philanthropic and philosophic" than Antoninus and Hadrian, and set him against the persecuting emperors Domitian and Nero to make the contrast bolder. Meditations is still revered as a literary monument to a government of service and duty. Barnes, Timothy D. 'Legislation against the Christians'. Marcus Aurelio "Maximus" Born: 1973-08-18 AGE: 47 Fortaleza, Ceara Brazil. [125], In 149, Faustina gave birth again, to twin sons. It is most probable, however, that Marcus’s conscience impelled him to carry out loyally what he believed to have been the plan by which alone he himself had eventually reached the purple. [244], In 163, the Parthians intervened in Osroene, a Roman client in upper Mesopotamia centred on Edessa, and installed their own king on its throne. [115], Apollonius may have introduced Marcus to Stoic philosophy, but Quintus Junius Rusticus would have the strongest influence on the boy. Many emperors had planned a joint succession in the past: The biographer relates the scurrilous (and, in the judgment of Anthony Birley, untrue) rumor that Commodus was an illegitimate child born of a union between Faustina and a gladiator. [264], Starting in the 160s, Germanic tribes, and other nomadic people launched raids along the northern border, particularly into Gaul and across the Danube. Henceforth, it was in philosophy that Marcus was to find his chief intellectual interest as well as his spiritual nourishment. Wife of M. Annius Libo: Levick (2014), p. 163. Emperor Marcus Aurelius tells Maximus that his own son, Commodus, is unfit to rule, and that he wishes Maximus to succeed him, as regent, to help save Rome from corruption and restore the Roman Republic. However, it was also a 'harbinger of something much more ominous'. In the night he vomited; he had a fever the next day. His father was Marcus Annius Verus (III). It is sometimes assumed that in Hadrian’s mind both Commodus and Antoninus Pius were merely to be “place warmers” for one or both of these youths. Marcus Aurelio "Maximus" Born: 1973-08-18 AGE: 47 Fortaleza, Ceara Brazil. When Hadrian died, Antoninus assumed command. The five horizontal slits allow light into the internal spiral staircase. Suetonius a possible lover of Sabina: One interpretation of, Lover of Hadrian: Lambert (1984), p. 99 and. [135] Lucius had no other titles, except that of 'son of Augustus'. However, the night before the speech, he grew ill and died of a hemorrhage later in the day. Accession of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus (161), Trade with Han China and outbreak of plague. After Antoninus died in 161, Marcus acceded to the throne alongside his adoptive brother, who took the name Lucius Verus. He was portrayed by the late Richard Harris in the 2000 film Gladiator.. Twelve Year … [165]) Faustina was three months pregnant at her husband's accession. Father to a murdered son, husband to a murdered wife. As tribune, he had the right to bring one measure before the senate after the four Antoninus could introduce. One notorious case brought him into conflict with Atticus. [82] Little is specifically known of the ceremony, but the biographer calls it 'noteworthy'. 'When Glass Was Treasured in China'. Why are we here?” Here is somewhere in the wintry Balkan plains—a long way from Rome—and the question is asked by the emperor Marcus Aurelius of his general Maximus. During his reign he fought successfully against the Alemanni and scored a victory against the Goths at the Battle of Naissus. [8] Inscriptions and coin finds supplement the literary sources. As it was, Marcus was set apart from his fellow citizens. Maximus : [removes helmet and turns around to face Commodus] My name is Maximus Decimus Meridius, commander of the Armies of the North, General of the Felix Legions and loyal servant to the TRUE emperor, Marcus Aurelius. [47] Marcus thanks Alexander for his training in literary styling. '[216], Fronto sent Marcus a selection of reading material,[218] and, to settle his unease over the course of the Parthian war, a long and considered letter, full of historical references. [105] Marcus pleaded with Fronto, first with 'advice', then as a 'favour', not to attack Atticus; he had already asked Atticus to refrain from making the first blows. [222][note 15] Whatever the case, the senate gave its assent, and, in the summer of 162, Lucius left. His father died when he was three, and his mother and grandfather raised Marcus. 1976 quotes from Marcus Aurelius: 'You have power over your mind - not outside events. Numerous members of Germanic tribes settled in frontier regions like Dacia, Pannonia, Germany, and Italy itself. [88], Atticus was controversial: an enormously rich Athenian (probably the richest man in the eastern half of the empire), he was quick to anger and resented by his fellow Athenians for his patronizing manner. The emperor's hand is outstretched in an act of clemency offered to a bested enemy, while his weary facial expression due to the stress of leading Rome into nearly constant battles perhaps represents a break with the classical tradition of sculpture. I love you and you are not here' in their correspondence. [188] Fronto would again remind his pupil of the tension between his role and his philosophic pretensions: 'Suppose, Caesar, that you can attain to the wisdom of Cleanthes and Zeno, yet, against your will, not the philosopher's woolen cape'. [294][295], Christians such as Justin Martyr, Athenagoras, and Eusebius also gave him the title. His master, he writes to Fronto, was an unpleasant blowhard, and had made 'a hit at' him: 'It is easy to sit yawning next to a judge, he says, but to be a judge is noble work'. His second modern editor, Champlin notes that Marcus's praise of Rusticus in the, Although part of the biographer's account of Lucius is fictionalized (probably to mimic Nero, whose birthday Lucius shared, These name-swaps have proven so confusing that even the. [20][21] This branch of the Aurelii based in Roman Spain, the Annii Veri, rose to prominence in Rome in the late 1st century AD. Excuses were sought, or invented: the official version had it that the Seleucids broke faith first. Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180) was Roman emperor from 161 to 180 and a Stoic philosopher. Stertz, Stephen A. Birley, 'Hadrian to the Antonines', p. 164. Meditations is perhaps the only document of its kind ever made. [118] He was older than Fronto and twenty years older than Marcus. View the profiles of people named Marcus Maximus Aurelius. Marcus Aurelius. The next day, 1 December, Antoninus gave Marcus the tribunician power and the imperium – authority over the armies and provinces of the emperor. Marcus was consul in 140, 145, and 161. [140], In 156, Antoninus turned 70. [62] His remains were buried quietly at Puteoli. Marcus Aurelius: Tell me again, Maximus, why are we here? He and Faustina, Marcus wrote, had been 'pretty occupied' with the girl's care. [209], Marcus took a four-day public holiday at Alsium, a resort town on the coast of Etruria. Those in particular that refer to the beating and robbing I will describe so that they savour of gall and bile. [251], By the end of the year, Cassius's army had reached the twin metropolises of Mesopotamia: Seleucia on the right bank of the Tigris and Ctesiphon on the left. [35] His mother Lucilla did not remarry[33] and, following prevailing aristocratic customs, probably did not spend much time with her son. There’s also a Netflix docuseries about Commodus called Roman Empire: Reign of Blood (2016), which approaches … [245] In response, Roman forces were moved downstream, to cross the Euphrates at a more southerly point. [224], Lucius spent most of the campaign in Antioch, though he wintered at Laodicea and summered at Daphne, a resort just outside Antioch. Marcus Aurelius was one of the most important Stoic philosophers, cited by H.P. '[212] He encouraged Marcus to rest, calling on the example of his predecessors (Antoninus had enjoyed exercise in the palaestra, fishing, and comedy),[213] going so far as to write up a fable about the gods' division of the day between morning and evening – Marcus had apparently been spending most of his evenings on judicial matters instead of at leisure. Since I became Caesar, I … Probus (/ˈproʊbəs/; Latin language: Marcus Aurelius Probus Augustus;12 c. 19 August 232 – September/October 282), was Roman Emperor from 276 to 282. the wind scatters some on the face of the ground; Marcus Aurelius : When was the last time you were home? Fronto urged him in a letter to have plenty of sleep 'so that you may come into the Senate with a good colour and read your speech with a strong voice'. [220], Over the winter of 161–162, news that a rebellion was brewing in Syria arrived and it was decided that Lucius should direct the Parthian war in person. Marcus Aurelius Quotes. Reign (161–180 AD). Answer: Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (AD 121—180) was a Roman emperor (161—180) and Stoic philosopher.He may be best known in pop culture as the father of the villainous emperor Commodus, the antagonist in the 2000 film Gladiator.He is known in other circles as the author of Meditations, a guide … Lower Pannonia was under the obscure Tiberius Haterius Saturnius. A man should be upright, not be kept upright. Husband of Ceionia Fabia: Levick (2014), p. 164. It would mean the end of the felicitas temporum ('happy times') that the coinage of 161 had proclaimed. Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aelius Aurelius Antoninus) (mär`kəs ôrē`lēəs), 121–180, Roman emperor, named originally Marcus Annius Verus.He was a nephew of Faustina, the wife of Antoninus Pius Antoninus Pius (Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus) , A.D. 86–A.D. This incongruous position did little harm in times of general security and prosperity, but when either of these were threatened, the local population might denounce Christians, a governor might be forced to act, and the law, as the central authority saw it, must then run its course. "[292], Michael Grant, in The Climax of Rome, writes of Commodus:[293], The youth turned out to be very erratic, or at least so anti-traditional that disaster was inevitable. He eventually killed Commodus, but died shortly after. And I will have my vengeance, in this life or the next. [247] Soon after the conquest of the north bank of the Euphrates, other Roman forces moved on Osroene from Armenia, taking Anthemusia, a town southwest of Edessa. Marcus Aurelius died on March 17, 180. The Death of Marcus Aurelius. He was the last of the rulers known as the Five Good Emperors, and the last emperor of the Pax Romana, an age of relative peace and stability for the Roman Empire. Antoninus seems to have given him no military experience; the biographer writes that Marcus spent the whole of Antoninus's twenty-three-year reign at his emperor's side and not in the provinces, where most previous emperors had spent their early careers. Galen, who was in Rome when the plague spread to the city in 166,[282] mentioned that 'fever, diarrhoea, and inflammation of the pharynx, along with dry or pustular eruptions of the skin after nine days' were among the symptoms. The field most congenial to him seems to have been the law. [6] The main narrative source for the period is Cassius Dio, a Greek senator from Bithynian Nicaea who wrote a history of Rome from its founding to 229 in eighty books. Lucius had a markedly different personality from Marcus: he enjoyed sports of all kinds, but especially hunting and wrestling; he took obvious pleasure in the circus games and gladiatorial fights. [89] Atticus was an inveterate opponent of Stoicism and philosophic pretensions. Barnes, 'Hadrian and Lucius Verus', p. 66. Lucius addressed the assembled troops, which then acclaimed the pair as imperatores. [110] Marcus had grown tired of his exercises, of taking positions in imaginary debates. Farquharson dates his death to 130 when Marcus was nine. Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180) was Roman emperor from 161 to 180 and a Stoic philosopher. How he came to the throne, however, remains a mystery. And Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius, born nearly two millennia ago (121 – 180), is a leader and example who provides a resounding yes. Marcus may have wanted Civica to watch over Lucius, the job Libo had failed at. Marcus Aurelius : Maximus, that is why it must be you. He sent for Antoninus, who was at his side when he died on 10 July 138. [85] He had three tutors in Greek – Aninus Macer, Caninius Celer, and Herodes Atticus – and one in Latin – Fronto. That's the way he introduces the subject. [91] In spite of the influence of Atticus, Marcus would later become a Stoic. Maecianus was recalled, made senator, and appointed prefect of the treasury (aerarium Saturni). Marcus's grandfather owned a palace beside the Lateran, where he would spend much of his childhood. The ab epistulis Sextus Caecilius Crescens Volusianus, in charge of the imperial correspondence, was replaced with Titus Varius Clemens. [99] Marcus spent time with Fronto's wife and daughter, both named Cratia, and they enjoyed light conversation. There was corruption among the officers: Victorinus had to ask for the resignation of a legionary legate who was taking bribes. 186–91. At Hadrian's request, Antoninus's daughter Faustina was betrothed to Lucius. [211] Fronto replied: 'What? Dio adds that from Marcus's first days as counsellor to Antoninus to his final days as emperor of Rome, "he remained the same [person] and did not change in the least. The citizens of Seleucia, still largely Greek (the city had been commissioned and settled as a capital of the Seleucid Empire, one of Alexander the Great's successor kingdoms), opened its gates to the invaders.

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